عنوان مقاله [English]
In many cities of Iran, the injustice in the distribution of per capita municipal services is obvious. In the meantime, the city of Boushehr has been rapidly growing in terms of population and space, but the municipal services have not developed correspondingly in terms of development and distribution. This creates social inequalities among different areas of the city, and therefore, it has led to discontent in areas with fewer facilities, promotion of urban journeys and spatial displacement. Therefore, the identification of the population access to urban utilities and their distribution is among the most pressing issues examined in this study.
2. Theoretical Framework
Allocation and distribution of resources that people need have always been facing with an imbalance. Such imbalances have been partially observed in the urban areas. In the meantime, one of the most important resources that is not well distributed in the local dimensions in our country has been the public services in urban areas according to population distribution. Thus, one of the most important factors in reducing inequalities in urban areas is the proper distribution of utilities in different parts of the city which in turn reduces the relative problems and social and physical crises. On the other hand, there would be no need to move to other parts of the city, and thus, it has positive impact on various economic, social, and environmental aspects of the city and promotes the quality of the urban life.
This analytical-descriptive study was done in Boushehr. The population was 6 districts of the city of Boushehr. In this study, the raw data were collected from library resources especially the comprehensive and detailed plan of Boushehr. The data included educational, cultural, social, health, tourism and catering, sports and recreation, parks and green spaces, urban equipment, commercial and municipal applications. Then, to study, analyze and compare the distribution of the use of service parameters, three models including standardized rating, location quotient (L, Q) and VIKOR (VIKOR) were separately and jointly used to rank them in the different areas. Excel software was used to prepare the tables. It is worth noting that Shannon entropy model was used in order for the weighting of indicators in VIKOR model..
4. Research Findings
To study the distribution of the service applications, three models including standardized rating, location quotient (L, Q) and VIKOR (VIKOR) were used. The standardized rating is a method for determining regional disparities and district ranking across regions, and shows the differences between regions. Location Quotient is used to identify the base in different areas and has special emphasis on the separation of basic and non-basic activities. VIKOR analytical model is based on collective performance and shows the closest option to the optimum and ideal point.
Therefore, based on the findings of the standardized rating model, districts 2, 6, 4, 3 and 1, have been ranked as the first to the sixth respectively in terms of distribution of services. Based on the spatial coefficient, districts 2 and 5 have the first and the last place respectively. According to VIKOR, districts 2 and 4 have the most and the fewest utilities respectively. By combining the three models, district 2 has the highest level of services, and district 6 has the second rank in this regard. District 1 is in the third, and districts 3 and 4 are jointly the fourth, and district 5 has the last place.
The investigation of the extent of inequality and the rating of the six districts of Boushehr in terms of all three per capita criteria, services tailored to the population and areas of services, and the average results of all three models showed that public services have not been distributed fairly among the districts of Boushehr. That is, district 2 and district 6 have the highest civil services. The main reason for the concentration of services in district 2 is the district's compliance with the city's commercial center. District 6 is separated from other 5 districts, and that is why it is considered as a semi-autonomous region in the Extensive Plan. However, one result of this uneven distribution of services is traveling towards the mentioned area within the city which is sometimes severe. Therefore, in urban planning and management, it is necessary to address spatial equity in the distribution of basic services in urban districts as an important component of the population and its needs.