مناطق شهری چندمرکزی: همکاری، رقابت یا هم رقابتی؟ (یک تحلیل مروری)

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

اهداف: از دهۀ 1990، اصطلاح چندمرکزی به عنوان یک مفهوم راهبردی توجه برنامه­ ریزان و سیاست­ گذاران شهری و منطقه­ ای را به سوی خود جلب کرد. مدافعان این راهبرد ادعا می­ کنند، مناطق چندمرکزی قادرند تعادلی میان رقابت­ پذیری اقتصادی، انسجام اجتماعی و پایداری محیطی برقرار کنند. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر سعی دارد با بررسی تطبیقی میان راهبردهای رقابت و همکاری راه سومی را برای درهم آمیختن مزایای هریک در برنامه­ ریزی مناطق شهری چندمرکزی بیابد.
روش پژوهش: مطالعه حاضر با توجه ماهیت و هدف پژوهش، از استدلال منطقی و تطبیقی به عنوان راهبرد و روش ­شناسی پژوهش بهره گرفته است.
یافته­ های پژوهش: یافته­ های پژوهش سه منطق فضایی را برای توجیه راهبردهای رقابت، همکاری و هم ­رقابتی معرفی می­ کند. در حالی که راهبردهای رقابتی بر منطق قلمرویی-رقابتی، مزایای رقابتی هر مرکز و تخصص­ گرایی تکیه دارند، راهبردهای همکارانه در مقابل آن­ها با پیوندهای هم ­افزا و نوآورانه بر مزایای بیرونی شبکه و شبکه ­های شهری تأکید می­ کنند. در نهایت، هم ­رقابتی مبتنی بر نظریات رفتاری و بازی­های غیرهمکارانه و شبکه ­های رقابتی تأکید می­ کند تا بتوانند با مزایای راهبردهای رقابتی و همکارانه نظیر افزایش اندازۀ بازار و غیره به بهبود موقعیت رقابتی دست یابند.
نتیجه­ گیری: پژوهش حاضر، راهبرد هم ­رقابتی را گزینه ­ای مناسب­­تر و اجرایی­ تر برای محیطی پرتنش، رقابتی و نامطمئن در میان شهرهای مناطق چندمرکزی می­ داند. در این راستا، راهبردهای متنوع هم ­رقابتی می­ تواند به دو صورت در مناطق شهری چندمرکزی رخ دهد،  هم­ رقابتی افقی و هم ­رقابتی عمودی. در هم ­رقابتی افقی شهرها در یک عملکرد خاص یا در یک پروژۀ اجرایی مشترک با یکدیگر همکاری می­ کنند، در حالی که در بخش دیگر با یکدیگر به رقابت می­ پردازند.

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